Remnants of the 1830s-vintage Glendale Mill on Lawson’s Fork Creek in Spartanburg, South Carolina
. In the 1880s the area -- now the Glendale Shoals Preserve -- was known as Bivingsville. Dr. James Bivings built a large cotton factory (the Glendale Mill) and pioneered the concept of the mill village in the South Carolina's "up-country" -- far from the more famous low country along the Atlantic coast. Most of the old mill, which was expanded many times, was destroyed in a raging fire in 1950. Photo by Carol Highsmith, 2017.